7. Employee costs €/000 223,419

As already indicated, published data relative to the previous year, have been restated to make them uniform with current data.
As regards employee costs, €/000 685 were recorded, relative to stock option costs, as required by international accounting standards, as well as charges connected with the mobility plans for the Pontedera, Noale and Martorelles production sites (in the latter case, costs do not take into account the restructuring stage which began on 15 February 2013).
The reduction during the year is due, among others, to a considerable part of variable costs related to incentive systems for personnel at all levels, not being included, due to personnel failing to reach their objectives.

2012 2011 Change
In thousands of Euros
Salaries and wages 163,377 172,697 (9,320)
Social security contributions 43,097 48,122 (5,025)
Post-employment benefits 8,681 8,892 (211)
Other costs 8,264 18,645 (10,381)
Total 223,419 248,356 (24,937)

Below is a breakdown of the headcount by actual number and average number:

LevelAverage number20122011Change
Senior management   95 100 (5)
Middle Management   574 504 70
White collars   2,202 2,100 102
Manual labour   5,477 5,033 444
Total   8,348 7,737 611
LevelNumber as of31.12.201231.12.2011Change
Senior management   96 97 (1)
Middle Management   573 515 58
White collars   2,214 2,127 87
Manual labour   5,246 4,880 366
Total   8,129 7,619 510
 

Movements in employee numbers in the two periods are compared below:

Level As of 31/12/2011 Incoming Leavers Relocations As of 31/12/2012
Senior management 97 2 (5) 2 96
Middle Management 515 92 (55) 21 573
White collars 2,127 381 (282) (12) 2,214
Blue collars 4,880 4,394 (4,017) (11) 5,246
Total (*) 7,619 4,869 (4,359) 0 8,129
(*) of which fixed-term contracts 1,917 4,324 (4,118) (92) 2,031


The increase in employees is mainly due to the new two-wheeler plant in India.
Average employee numbers were affected by seasonal workers in the summer (on fixed-term employment contracts).
In fact the Group uses fixed-term employment contracts to handle typical peaks in demand in the summer months.

Distribution of the workforce by geographic segment as of 31 December 2012

Distribution of the workforce by geographic segment as of 31 December 2012